Sacrificing for Success: Unseen struggles

The price some parents pay to keep their kids in Pleasanton schools

The average household income in Pleasanton was $145,000 in 2014, and the median single-family home was $732,000. Many believe everyone who lives in Pleasanton is as rich as those U.S. Census Bureau statistics indicate or is on their way to becoming so.

Erica, though, is aware she and her family do not fit into this picture painted by statistics, as she buys another bag of discounted rice and tallies out how much money will be left after rent has drained two-thirds of her monthly income.

Erica, a 41-year-old undocumented resident who asked her last name not be used, is among a small community of Pleasanton residents who live below the poverty line but save and sacrifice for one purpose: to send their kids to the Pleasanton Unified School District.

It's within this suburban Bay Area town that Erica has formed a life, one much different from her childhood -- one where her children can play in parks without fear and have a guarantee of an education that will get them ready for college and careers.

It's a much different life from the residents around her in this town of entrepreneurs and tech workers. A single mother of four, she cleans multimillion-dollar homes and clears others' entrees at downtown restaurants.

"I went to Amador (Valley High) one day for a conference, and I heard from one Latino lady. She lives like us. She said, 'It's not impossible to be someone,'" Erica said. "She said, 'It's the best district ever. I'm thinking, 'I need to be here, no matter what.'"

A total of 1,034 Pleasanton Unified students are considered socio-economically disadvantaged, about 7% of the district, according to district spokesman Patrick Gannon.

Many are Hispanic and hail from Mexico, and some are undocumented. Some have a high school education or greater, but others never got past middle school. Nearly all of their children are citizens -- and many were born and raised in Pleasanton.

A sought-after community for Silicon Valley and San Francisco commuters, Pleasanton's home prices and rental market have exploded in recent decades, pricing out many of the city's lower-income residents.

In 2000, the median value of a home was $435,000, according to U.S. Census data. By 2014, it was $732,000.

Likewise, the average monthly apartment rent in Pleasanton climbed from $1,200 in 2000 to $1,700 by 2014 and rising every year, Census data showed. In 2015, market rate for a one-bedroom unit was between $1,750 and $2,050, according to the city of Pleasanton.

Some families like Erica's have resisted gentrification's pull to other areas, instead deciding to dedicate more income to rent and less and less to everything else -- vacations, after-school activities, clothes and food -- to secure the requisite Pleasanton address that guarantees their children entrance to high-achieving public schools.

Yes, Erica knows, she could move to a cheaper part of the Bay Area. She isn't exactly stuck in her rented apartment with donated furniture and discount-store food. Yes, she could go to Richmond or Modesto and save her money, buy a better car and get a nicer apartment.

Or she could stay put and bet her investment will mean her children will have a better chance at thriving careers.

To make ends meet in a $2,600-a-month apartment, Erica and her family rent out two of the three bedrooms to other residents. At the moment, seven people live in their apartment, and they're hardly the only ones who opt for such an arrangement.

Gabina Sanchez, a 33-year-old single mother of a preteen who attends a PUSD school and a 4-year-old who will start kindergarten soon, rents out one bedroom in their two-bedroom apartment. She sleeps in the living room on a mattress so her boys have the other bedroom to themselves.

"My kids are everything for me. They're my life," she said. "They're what keep me going. I just want to give them a better life."

Pleasanton Unified's 95.7% graduation rate, frequent Ivy League college acceptances and amalgam of students honored for national science, technology and music achievements often elicit comparisons to public and private schools on the Peninsula.

Nearby Livermore Valley Joint Unified, San Ramon Valley Unified and Dublin Unified are similarly high-achieving, but the cost of living is about equal to Pleasanton. A significant decrease in cost of living would mean moving to Tracy (89.9% graduation rate in 2014), Hayward (80.1% graduation rate), Oakland (60.5% graduation rate) or a similar town.

The crime rate in Pleasanton, and the Tri-Valley in general, is also significantly lower than surrounding communities. Last year marked the first homicide in Pleasanton since 2012.

Miguel Ornelas, who runs monthly community support meetings at Hearst Elementary School for English-language learners, said he's thought about moving his family elsewhere, but then he thinks about other children in his family who ended up getting involved in gangs.

Ornelas, 47, said he advises families to try and find a Section 8 or rent-controlled apartment so their children don't have to live among strangers. But many of the families he helps have no other option.

He pays $2,300 a month for their two-bedroom apartment, choosing not to rent rooms so his kids can have their own space. But it takes up almost all of his disability payments and his wife's part-time income, as well as draining years of savings.

"I've applied (for affordable apartments), but I've been on the list for a couple of years," he said.

A lifelong deficit of opportunities in Mexico led Erica, Ornelas and Sanchez to pursue a life in the U.S. At first, they ran to escape abuse, crippling poverty and gangs that permeated their towns.

Now, they said, there are days when they feel like they're running in place, barely able to keep from falling behind.

Ornelas, who is now a citizen, said he rarely has to look farther than the kitchens of Main Street restaurants or the cleaning staff and landscape workers of hillside mansions to find people who are struggling.

"I'm going to push all the way because this is the best town. The schools are the best here. They have the education I want for my kids," Ornelas said. "That's the only reason why I'm still here."

'A safer city'

When Sanchez was 14 years old, she left school in Mexico to work as a maid to help her family earn extra money. Getting away from abuse from family members was a silver lining, but she found little relief.

"I would have to live in poverty," she said of her former hometown. "There's days where there's no running water."

After years of abuse by a boyfriend, she hired a guide in 2002 to help her illegally sneak into the U.S. She spent eight hours climbing the mountains of Southern California before hopping the train that would take her to Los Angeles.

She later visited Pleasanton to see her brother, but she was struck by the peacefulness of the town. The downtown, with its small shops lined up on Main Street, gave the area an idyllic feel.

"I decided to stay here because it's safer; it's a safer city," she said.

Now, she's the mother of four boys, two of whom live with her in Pleasanton. She's received a visa, one granted to survivors of violent crimes who assisted the police, and her new work permit gives her access to jobs otherwise out of reach.

Sanchez works as a restaurant waitress, spending her free time searching for another job after work dried up at one position.

She sublets one bedroom to some strangers, and she's searching for renters for the bedroom her boys currently sleep in. The mattress that lays in their living room is her bedroom, but the boys let her have their closet for storage.

Her 11-year-old son William, who was born in Pleasanton, has gone through elementary and now middle school in town. He'll come home jabbering about Egyptian Pharaohs and paleontology.

"He wouldn't have an opportunity to learn in Mexico," she said.

With help from friends

On a chilly December day, Erica invited her neighbors inside as kids ran inside and out and in again.

A friend looked at the pile of Christmas presents under her tree and laughed. Erica pointed to the gifts, one labeled "underwear" and others marked based on age of recipient, and said she'd send her friend home with some of the packages.

"I'll share with you," she said.

Two Pleasanton schools and their local Catholic church, St. Augustine, had donated most of the items under their tree. Erica said she's grateful for the regular help during holidays. At Thanksgiving, PUSD gave Erica a turkey so she wouldn't have to serve chicken and rice as a substitute.

When Erica came to Pleasanton 14 years ago, she said, she wasn't sure how long she was going to be able to stay in town.

Then, a stranger introduced her to Valley View Elementary's dual-immersion program, where students are taught in English and Spanish. For English-speakers, it's a way to develop fluency quickly. For Spanish-speakers, like Erica's oldest son Kevin, who is now studying nursing at Chico State, it was a way to level the playing field.

Years went by, and Erica and her small family lived in their apartment living room so they could rent out all of the rooms.

It was an accomplishment when she had saved enough money to afford the deposit on a three-bedroom apartment. That way, she and her younger three children could have one bedroom to themselves, and they rent out the other two.

When it's time for bed, her 11-year-old scampers into the top bunk of a bunk bed, her 12-year-old daughter pulls out a mattress from under the bunk bed to sleep on and Erica curls up with her 5-year-old son on the bottom bunk.

While space inside is tight, her kids spend most of their free time at home running around in the grassy areas of their apartment complex -- at least, when they aren't studying or participating in free after-school programs.

"It's kind of comfortable, once you get used to it," her 11-year-old son Angel said.

"We have a big backyard," Erica said, pointing to a communal grassy area in the middle of the complex where dozens of kids run around every day.

She works five part-time jobs to bring in about $3,000 a month, including positions as a nanny, house-cleaner and restaurant busser, sometimes working late into the night and on weekends.

Erica's kids say they've never felt poor because in a way, they aren't. They may not have thousands of dollars in disposable income, but her children say they have never been left without something they actually needed, such as food, books for school or college tuition.

"I feel fortunate to be here, but at the same time, I feel unfortunate that I can't give them a better space," Erica said. "It's too much, but I'm happy because every day when I wake up, I look at my kids and say, 'I can do this one more day.'"

Dreaming bigger

By attending schools that offer clubs for everything from robotics to entrepreneurship and spending weekends talking with friends' parents who run Silicon Valley companies, children from low-income families start to believe that they can achieve these goals, too.

Sanchez's 11-year-old son wants to be a paleontologist and name a dinosaur after himself. One of Erica's sons wants to be an entrepreneur.

Children from rough neighborhoods don't always get that privilege. Kids who grow up in an overburdened school system or a neighborhood spotted with crime might not hear the words, "You can do anything." Or worse, they might not believe it when they grow up.

When survival is the primary motivator, dreams become impractical fiction. Erica said she doesn't ever want her kids to think that way.

Standing by her kitchen fridge covered with her children's drawings, Erica reminisced about her oldest son's high school graduation, remembering how loud she screamed when he walked across the stage.

"I'm so proud. Now he's in university, and I think nothing is impossible," she said, "no matter how much I need to work."

== Editor's note: This story is the first in a three-part series, "Sacrificing for Success," about low-income residents in Pleasanton who sacrifice to keep their children in the Pleasanton Unified School District.==


22 people like this
Posted by Citizen
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 5, 2016 at 9:37 am

We are a nation of immigrants!!? You mean the ones who came before!? (1) Legally, (2) learned the language, (3) didn't require everything written in their native tongue, (4) earned a living instead of being given hand outs, (5) obeyed the laws of the US (See #1 LEGALLY), (6) pledged allegiance to OUR flag and didn't insist on flying the flag of their homeland. (7) Volunteered to fight for liberty and freedom for the USA! Oh, yeah, those forefathers! Haven't seen any in a very long time!!! The one's coming across our borders now are ILLEGAL and CRIMINALS!! At the very least, send them back to their country of origin. Reduce the aid we send to their counties by $5000 (airline ticket) each, until they stop sneaking across the border!!

In 1986 the United States Government gave Amnesty to 3 million illegal aliens and promised it would never happen again, and now we have 12 million more illegal aliens and they want to do the same thing. We need to enforce our immigration laws. Let's go after the people who hire illegal aliens and fine these companies. We need to deport all 12 million illegal aliens and make certain our borders are secured. These illegal aliens living in the United States today are NOT WELCOME and unwanted by everyone but the employers who exploit them. We need a way to kick them all out of the country and never let them back in again.

4 people like this
Posted by Ordinary Joe
a resident of Amador Estates
on Feb 5, 2016 at 9:55 am

[Removed because it was off topic and didn't contribute to the conversation]

5 people like this
Posted by carlos
a resident of Highland Oaks
on Feb 5, 2016 at 10:16 am

Since the average household income is $145,000, I may be eligible for food stamps. :)

As for as the "American Dream", it's alive and well. You just have to work hard for it. It's always been that way.

23 people like this
Posted by Old Guy
a resident of Willow West
on Feb 5, 2016 at 10:25 am

Citizen... Please be aware that your opinion on this issue has support. I can respect the dedication to family described in the article however reality of their legal status must override their efforts to provide opportunities for themselves and their children. It's difficult but turning a blind eye to the issues of undocumented individuals is wrong. It's a hard and sometimes painful decision but enforcing our laws and respecting our history is the only acceptable path for dealing with these issues.

53 people like this
Posted by Julie
a resident of Birdland
on Feb 5, 2016 at 10:27 am

@citizen -

You are talking out of both sides of your mouth. C'mon. For example - how can "illegal immigrants" be taking handouts/not earning a living and working but exploited by employers? They are either stealing American jobs or living off the American government, right? Can't be both - you need to choose which xenophobic caricature you are embracing today.

What an embarrassing and hate-filled response to a wonderful article, which you clearly didn't even read.

6 people like this
Posted by Olive
a resident of Dublin
on Feb 5, 2016 at 3:59 pm

Olive is a registered user.

Wish I could live in Pleasanton. Another guilt ridden story for all of us. How about the Catholic Church helping our seniors!!!

18 people like this
Posted by Olive
a resident of Dublin
on Feb 5, 2016 at 4:43 pm

Olive is a registered user.

Also, when did it become ok to break the law to get what you want? We all have our struggles..Believe Me! Life is tough..we all have to play the cards we're dealt, with integrity and rule of law. We are a country of laws! Finally, can we step back and put American workers first! Does any of our elected officials care about Americans! Nurses I know can't get jobs anymore because they can't speak Spanish...and on and on...what is the point of this article anyway? To make Americans feel bad? To make us have empathy? We have that!!! We are generous, kind, giving!!! How much is enough???

13 people like this
Posted by FrequentWalkerMiles
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 5, 2016 at 5:38 pm

FrequentWalkerMiles is a registered user.


Perhaps you are not familiar with how illegal immigrants can be both taking jobs from citizens and legal immigrants and also taking handouts, it's actually fairly common as I grew up part time in the San Joaquin valley. It's quite simple. They work under the table for wages far below what most people would get paid with a job that requires a E-verify and a valid W2, and with kids they get assistance with food, housing, health care. Anyone who lived in a community with large number of migrant workers would know that. It is literally very common.

Take care now.

22 people like this
Posted by Michael Austin
a resident of Pleasanton Meadows
on Feb 5, 2016 at 7:14 pm

Michael Austin is a registered user.

People have to survive, it does not matter where people are from.

Everyone has a life to live, it does not matter legal or not.

Those people that arrived on the eastern shore on the Mayflower were all illegal.

28 people like this
Posted by Liz Paul
a resident of Pleasanton Meadows
on Feb 7, 2016 at 1:37 pm

Liz Paul is a registered user.

Thank you Michael for your comment. Having lived in Mexico City for almost 15 years prior to moving to Pleasanton, I have seen the incredible difficulty that people go through trying to raise a family on a minimum wage of less than $2 a day (that's per day - not hour). So a life with not enough food, clothing and often the kids can't go to school as they have to try to find some way to make some money, even the equivalent of pennies, just to help out. Then there's heartbreak that families go through when one of those family members decides they must leave their family behind to seek a better paying job in another country in order for their children to have a better future. In my 13 years here, I have met very, very few current Pleasantonians who personally have gone through this type of experience. Therefore, I would ask that instead of all of these above mentioned judgements against the people in the article, I ask that you instead try to even imagine what you would do in their shoes. I know that I would have done the same. And I say that comment proudly and openly - using my own name - instead of making judgments while hiding behind some screen name.

8 people like this
Posted by Olive
a resident of Dublin
on Feb 7, 2016 at 1:55 pm

Olive is a registered user.

There's the guilt the borders then, have no laws, no country. Then see what happens.

15 people like this
Posted by FrequentWalkerMiles
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 8, 2016 at 12:04 pm

FrequentWalkerMiles is a registered user.

Perhaps someone can help me understand this, is an illegal immigrant single parent of 4, renting out her apartment to cram 7 people into one unit really what we want to promote and encourage in Pleasanton? Where exactly do we draw the line and say people have the responsibility to take care of themselves and not demand others to subsidize their residency in a place they cannot afford?

I bet people who pay the most amount of lip service to the poor will be outraged and demand "responsible growth" if any developers dared to build the kind of apartments that Erica lives in their neighborhoods.

7 people like this
Posted by DKHSK
a resident of Bridle Creek
on Feb 8, 2016 at 6:22 pm

DKHSK is a registered user.

Oh Liz give it a break!

$150b to $200b is spent each year cost for illegal immigration. That's EACH YEAR!

But no, because OTHER countries are hell holes, then the shining bright star of the United States MUST admit and pay for those other countries utter incompetence to provide for their own citizens!

I have that just about right for you Liz and Michael?

Do you want to see those countries policies change quickly? Tax remittances at 25 or 30% and lets see what happens then. Let's build the border wall and enforce the laws. Offer anyone here illegally to self-deport, then get in line to come back. Formulate a strict guest worker program that allows easy access for workers seeking seasonal work. After season, back home they go. Deport ALL illegal immigrants who are in our prisons AFTER they've finished their sentences. No exceptions.

I can go on and on.

There are so many things we can do to make immigration work, but nobody, Republicans or Democrats, have the will to do anything but talk.


24 people like this
Posted by caywen
a resident of Del Prado
on Feb 9, 2016 at 8:28 am

caywen is a registered user.

This isn't a story about our immigration policy or the politics surrounding it. This is a story about people who sacrifice everything to give their kids what they never had. Before soap boxing your politics, think about what you would do. Me, I would hope that I would have the courage to do the same. Maybe immigration policy does need to change, but not because hard working parents who love their kids send them to our schools.

If there is one thing I want Pleasanton to accomplish, it is maintaining our willingness to share for the greater good. That is what good towns and good people do.

12 people like this
Posted by DKHSK
a resident of Bridle Creek
on Feb 9, 2016 at 8:43 am

DKHSK is a registered user.

This isn't about "soapbox" politics. This is about solutions.

I just simply disagree that the United States must change because OTHER countries cannot support their citizens. And I sure as heck think that United States citizens should not have to transfer their wealth to a permanent underclass that resides here illegally.

You want compassion, yet you don't ask for justice for those same people that are FORCED to leave their own countries because their politicians are too corrupt to fix their internal problems.

We can do something about this, politically and diplomatically, but we don't because that would mean there would be insufficient means of graft for our government and profit for corporations.

5 people like this
Posted by FrequentWalkerMiles
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 9, 2016 at 9:20 am

FrequentWalkerMiles is a registered user.

I guess the definition of courage has changed since our fathers' and grandfathers' days. Why did my forebears work all those decades in coal mines of Appalachia and Utah when they could just have moved to a prosperous city or township, had many more children than they did, and demand everyone else to "share for the greater good"?

21 people like this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2016 at 9:37 am

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

Just to add to everyone's thinking, Web Link

"The 50-state analysis by the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy released on Thursday found that roughly 8.1 million of 11.4 million undocumented immigrants who work paid more than $11.8 billion in state and local taxes in 2012, even while they were living illegally in the country."

And many, because of their status, do not file claims for refunds. If we are going to debate what we should do, you need the entire picture. This is likely a factor of living in Pleasanton, but I don't know anyone who wants the jobs these immigrants (legal or illegal) have; so I don't see the logic in saying they are taking American jobs away.

21 people like this
Posted by no user name
a resident of Downtown
on Feb 9, 2016 at 10:20 am

no user name is a registered user.

I do not support illegal immigration. However, I have a business that requires manual work to be done and I have found not one single "American" willing to do it. All of my workers are legal workers from Mexico and other Central American countries. I pay them for 8 hours of work per day, I issue them W-2s or 1099s as appropriate and not one tax form has been returned due to a made up or duplicate SS number.

I often encounter people holding "homeless and hungry" signs and I always ask them if they are willing to work for money and I will even include meals. You can guess the profane responses that I get. They don't want work, they want a handout.

Until people from this country are willing to actually work I will continue to hire laborers from other countries. They earn their pay and I consider it a good value.

6 people like this
Posted by truewest
a resident of Stoneridge
on Feb 9, 2016 at 12:43 pm

truewest is a registered user.

Are all these "extra" bedroom tenants actually legally residing in the buildings in question? Rented to with the permission of the landlord? Putting an unplanned-for burden on building and city services and infrastructure?

3 people like this
Posted by DKHSK
a resident of Bridle Creek
on Feb 9, 2016 at 1:16 pm

DKHSK is a registered user.

Ok Kathleen, let's assume that you're info is 100% correct. Let's do the math shall we: $150b - 12b= $138b net cost to the taxpayers.

Yes, I think that makes the problem MUCH better. /sarcasm

And btw, not once did I frame this in the mode of "taking jobs away from Americans". This is STRICTLY a citizen taxpayer/national security issue and other than lip service, our ridiculous political class refuses to do anything except all more illegal immigrants.

And just so you know, the corporations are doing the same thing with H1-B visas in order to get cheaper labor in the professional class.

5 people like this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2016 at 1:54 pm

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

Well, it wasn't my "info." Here is another article on this debate, which is more complex than just the numbers: Web Link

Maybe we find a way for those who are gainfully employed to safely register and begin a process to stay. It would mean some who are more transient won't register, but it would be a start. If you wish to find all those here illegally, and/or include those with H1-B visas, and kick them out, go ahead; there are likely going to be unintended consequences, and not for the better.

11 people like this
Posted by caywen
a resident of Del Prado
on Feb 9, 2016 at 5:48 pm

caywen is a registered user.

In what way are the people the article talks about a drain on our society? I see examples here of homeless refusing to work and "underclass" who leech off the system. That doesn't at all sound like these people. So, whatever you are saying is pretty off topic. This is about people who want their kids to have a good life in our good town and are willing to work their asses off for it.

3 people like this
Posted by BobB
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 9, 2016 at 6:08 pm

BobB is a registered user.


I agree the people in this article are working hard and contributing to society. But some of the children of immigrants like these can be a disruptive factor in schools. I've seen it here personally in Pleasanton Middle School.

1 person likes this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2016 at 6:18 pm

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

"In what way are the people the article talks about a drain on our society?" I posted the article precisely because it presents a positive side to the discussion.

1 person likes this
Posted by DKHSK
a resident of Bridle Creek
on Feb 10, 2016 at 8:00 am

DKHSK is a registered user.

I find it interesting that in the article, the representative from the Social Security administration claims that illegal immigrants contribute $15b per year to SS, yet the Institute of Taxation and Economic policy claims TOTAL fed and state taxes at $12b?

Seems like agencies these calculations might be a, with respect to the amount of total taxes paid? That's the problem with these types of articles and studies. NOBODY KNOWS!!

From the article: "The dollar VALUE of the benefits far outweigh the costs, so the government could just transfer extra funds to those local populations that need more help. " Emphasis mine.

Note what the author did there? Sure, there is VALUE to paying the lowest possible wage for the work that most working Americans won't do. If I ran a construction company, you bet I'd use the lowest cost labor I could find to build my houses, only a fool would do otherwise. But make no mistake about it, there are far more people here illegally that DO NOT contribute in any way to the tax base, and its those people that create the vast gap between what is paid in, and what is paid out.

Do we just let them stay and create a permanent underclass?

Like I said, this problem needs to be fixed. It is, at best, naive to think that offering amnesty will somehow magically fix the issue.

2 people like this
Posted by DKHSK
a resident of Bridle Creek
on Feb 10, 2016 at 8:23 am

DKHSK is a registered user.

Interesting article from Mexico News Daily (safe link): Web Link

From the article: "Remittances sent home by Mexicans working outside the country surpassed petroleum revenues in 2015 for the first time. There was a 4.75% increase in money sent from abroad, most of which comes from the U.S., to total US $24.8 billion last year, up from $23.6 billion in 2014, said the Bank of Mexico."

This number would indicate that the vast majority of income made by II's is unreported. When coupled with receiving benefits, is it any wonder why people are angry at our political class??

Why would we not tax remittances now?

Like this comment
Posted by FrequentWalkerMiles
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 10, 2016 at 12:27 pm

FrequentWalkerMiles is a registered user.

Now in case anyone asks "well gee how to illegal aliens get benefits?" I assume people understand that

(1)the US, unlike any other developed country, gives automatic citizenship to children born to illegal aliens. So the benefits are applied in their names who have the same rights as children of people who went through the legal channels to get here

and (2) it is very common for illegal aliens to use others' social security numbers to apply for government assistance. Anyone who have been around a large immigrant community would know that.

Sorry, but further commenting on this topic has been closed.

Fighting to wipe out changing our clocks
By Tim Hunt | 12 comments | 481 views

Baker & Glazer: Together again on issues
By Jeb Bing | 0 comments | 267 views

How Well Is Your High School Preparing Your Student for College
By Elizabeth LaScala | 0 comments | 236 views